With our project structured, we’re finally ready to start implementing the logic to create database backups. We’re going to tackle this project using “Test Driven Development”, so let’s learn the basics of TDD now.
For this course, we’re using
pytest as our testing framework. It’s a simple tool, and although there is a unit testing framework built into Python, I think that
pytest is a little easier to understand. Before we can use it though, we need to install it. We’ll use
pipenv and specify that this is a “dev” dependency:
(pgbackup-E7nj_BsO) $ pipenv install --dev pytest ... Adding pytest to Pipfile's [dev-packages]… Locking [dev-packages] dependencies… Locking [packages] dependencies… Updated Pipfile.lock (5c8539)!
Now the line that we wrote in our
Makefile that utilized the
pytest, CLI will work.
The first step of TDD is writing a failing test. In our case, we’re going to go ahead and write a few failing tests. Using
pytest, our tests will be functions with names that start with
test_. As long as we name the functions properly, the test runner should find and run them.
We’re going to write three tests to start:
Namespacehas the proper values set.
At this point, we don’t even have any source code files, but that doesn’t mean that we can’t write code that demonstrates how we would like our modules to work. The module that we want is called
cli, and it should have a
create_parser function that returns an
ArgumentParser configured for our desired use.
Let’s write some tests that exercise
cli.create_parser and ensure that our
ArgumentParser works as expected. The name of our test file is important; make sure that the file starts with
test_. This file will be called
import pytest from pgbackup import cli url = "postgres://bob:email@example.com:5432/db_one" def test_parser_without_driver(): """ Without a specified driver the parser will exit """ with pytest.raises(SystemExit): parser = cli.create_parser() parser.parse_args([url]) def test_parser_with_driver(): """ The parser will exit if it receives a driver without a destination """ parser = cli.create_parser() with pytest.raises(SystemExit): parser.parse_args([url, "--driver", "local"]) def test_parser_with_driver_and_destination(): """ The parser will not exit if it receives a driver with a destination """ parser = cli.create_parser() args = parser.parse_args([url, "--driver", "local", "/some/path"]) assert args.driver == "local" assert args.destination == "/some/path"
Now that we’ve written a few tests, it’s time to run them. We’ve created our
Makefile already, so let’s make sure our virtualenv is active and run them:
$ pipenv shell (pgbackup-E7nj_BsO) $ make PYTHONPATH=./src pytest ======================================= test session starts ======================================= platform linux -- Python 3.6.4, pytest-3.3.2, py-1.5.2, pluggy-0.6.0 rootdir: /home/user/code/pgbackup, inifile: collected 0 items / 1 errors ============================================= ERRORS ============================================== _______________________________ ERROR collecting tests/test_cli.py ________________________________ ImportError while importing test module '/home/user/code/pgbackup/tests/test_cli.py'. Hint: make sure your test modules/packages have valid Python names. Traceback: tests/test_cli.py:3: in
from pgbackup import cli E ImportError: cannot import name 'cli' !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Interrupted: 1 errors during collection !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ===================================== 1 error in 0.11 seconds ===================================== make: *** [test] Error 2
We get an
ImportError from our test file because there is no module in
cli. This is awesome because it tells us what our next step is. We need to create that file.